It may be cost-effective to use the same area for hospital cows and maternity cows, but sharing these pens can cause calf diseases, such as salmonellosis, E. coli infections, rotavirus, coronavirus, as well as umbilical infections, says Roger Winter, veterinarian with AgriLabs.

            Use dedicated pens that are completely separate from hospital pens for calving. Design calving pens so that you can clean and disinfect them easily. Locate them in areas that are free of moisture and drafts.