According to Geof Smith, assistant professor of ruminant medicine at North Carolina State University, the ideal oral electrolyte solution for neonatal ruminants should contain the following:

  • A sodium concentration between 90 and 130 millimoles per liter (mM/L).
  • A potassium concentration between 10 and 30 mM/L.
  • A chloride concentration between 40 and 90 mM/L.
  • An alkalizing agent, such as acetate, propionate and bicarbonate.
  • A glucose-to-sodium ratio of between 1:1 and 3:1.
  • Neutral amino acids, such as glycine, alanine or glutamine, to facilitate absorption and provide energy.