Cows residing in southern climates have calves that weigh 6 percent to 10 percent less than those in northern climates, says Joe West, dairy scientist at the University of Georgia’s Coastal Plain Experiment Station in Tifton, Ga.

However, studies in Florida and Israel have shown that cooling cows in the dry period can improve the bodyweight of newborn calves, by around 6 to 7 pounds. This cooling also boosts milk production in the subsequent lactation. The table below summarizes the results.