A tile line lies beneath the calf pens at the University of Minnesota’s Southern Research and OutreachCenter. The tile line is buried about 18 inches below the surface of the pens and is located about 18 inches from the front of the 4-foot-by-8-foot pens. The tile line is covered with pea rock, and the rest of the trench is filled with soil from construction of the calf barns. Moisture from the pens seeps into the tile, which empties into a septic tank.

In hindsight, they would like to see the entire trench filled with pea rock, not just the tile, adds Dave Ziegler, manager of the calf and heifer facility.