USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) released final estimates of planted and harvested crop acreage for 2013 in the Crop Production 2013 Summary report on Jan. 10. USDA's Farm Service Agency (FSA) released its final report of planted acreage for 2013 on Jan. 15.
There may be some misunderstanding or confusion about how the two estimates of planted acreage are generated and how the estimates should compare, according to Darrel Good, University of Illinois ag economist.
The NASS estimates of planted acreage incorporate both survey and administrative data. The primary survey data are collected in the December Agricultural Survey of producers. The survey is conducted by mail, phone, Internet and personal interview in all states except Hawaii. The survey is a probability survey, in the sense that operations surveyed represent a sample drawn from a list of all producers in such a way that all operations have a chance to be included.
The December 2013 survey was conducted between Nov. 29 and Dec. 17 with a sample size of 82,403 (NASS executive summary, released on Jan. 10, 2014). Respondents are asked to report the acreage of each crop planted for all purposes for all land operated by the respondent. Based on the survey data, each state Field Office submits an estimate and written analysis to the NASS Agricultural Statistics Board. The survey data and written analysis are used along with administrative data to prepare the final estimates of planted acreage, harvested acreage, yield, and production. The administrative data are primarily the planted acreage data reported to and summarized by the FSA.
The FSA requires producers participating in the direct and counter-cyclical payment program and the Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) program, along with those who receive marketing assistance loans or loan deficiency payments to file an annual report regarding all cropland use on their farms. Producers self-report to the FSA, but the failure to file an accurate and timely report can result in the loss of program benefits. Producers report planted acreage, prevented acreage, and failed acreage by crop.
The planted acreage data collected by the FSA should be very accurate, but are incomplete because not all producers are required to report. In contrast, the NASS estimates are for all planted acreage, but the estimates are subject to sampling error since not every producer is surveyed. The NASS estimates of planted acreage of each crop should be larger than the FSA estimates since not all producers participate in FSA programs. The relationship between the two estimates should be generally consistent from year to year since NASS uses the FSA estimates as input for final estimates. Variation in the magnitude of the differences from year to year could reflect such things as differing rates of participation in FSA programs and NASS sampling errors.