Some groups point to antibiotic use in animal agriculture as the main cause of the antibiotic resistance phenomenon, but they are missing the whole story. According to a report by the American Academy of Microbiology (AAM), the causes of antibiotic resistance are varied and complex.

Suggesting that antibiotic resistance primarily occurs from antibiotic abuse or misuse doesn't accurately portray the complete story. According to, the report by AAM, ‘Antibiotic Resistance: An Ecological Perspective on an Old Problem’, says that even appropriate antibiotic use can contribute to the spread of resistance, underscoring the complexity of explaining its causes.

According to the report,  "There are no scapegoats." The report is based on a colloquium convened by AAM in October 2008. "Responsibility is partly due to medical practice, including patient demand; veterinary practice; industrial practices; politics; and antibiotics themselves. Ultimately, resistance development is founded in the inevitability of microbial evolution."

The report states further that antibiotic resistance is essentially uncontrollable. "Antibiotic resistance is an international pandemic that compromises the treatment of all infectious diseases," the report says.

Read "Antibiotic Resistance: An Ecological Perspective on an Old Problem" here.