Transitioning a calf from its individual pen to a group pen can be very stressful, according to Ann Hoskins, Calf Products Coordinator for Vita Plus Corp.
She says stressors that can affect these animals are new location, socializing, feed change, locating feed and water, vaccinations, dehorning, etc. Too many stressors at once, and you’ll significantly miss out on heifer health and performance. Additionally, Hoskins advises:
- In most cases, when calves are exposed to too many stressors, they go off feed for a couple of days. This can result in coccidiosis breaks, respiratory disease and weight loss. The first signs that calves are stressed are usually inconsistent manure, rough hair coats, coughing and too much feed refusal. At this stage, calves should be comfortably consuming 5 to 6 pounds of grain daily.
- It is fairly easy to change the schedule of events for dehorning, vaccinating and feed changes to pre-moving or post-moving. But have you ever taken a close look at the facility that will be the calves’ new home? Is it user-friendly to the calf?
- Look at the animals’ behavior for the first few days when you move them to group housing. How is the calf flow? Can they find the feed easily? Is it easy to reach the feed? Can calves easily reach and find the water source? Do they have to figure out how to use headlocks or slant bars for the first time? Each of these challenges alone could be a single stressor. Add them up and you could be on path for disaster.
“The biggest challenge I see is calves is finding the feed and water,” says Hoskins.“Try to keep feed and water along the fence line. When calves enter a pen, they always walk the perimeter first. If you look at a pasture, the grass on the fence line is always eaten first.”
This can be as simple as putting in a portable bunk for the first week until they learn to stick their heads through the head locks or slant bars. In some cases, a raised bunk in the feed alley may help. When looking at feeding areas, look at throat height, curb width, elevation difference between the feeding table and the scrape alley and/or bed pack. Signs that the calf is struggling or uncomfortable include:
- Bare areas of skin where hair is rubbed off from stretching
- The calf’s neck is stretched for an uncomfortable reach to the feed
- The calf's head is getting stuck frequently due to the wrong size slant bars or headlocks
“Make sure water height is appropriate for the size of animals in the pen,” recommends Hoskins. “Consider the height of the water plus the pad it is on. If calves have to struggle to reach the water, they figure out how to reach the water to survive, but the amount the calves will drink is limited.”
Source: Vita Plus Starting Strong newsletter, August 2012