Push-up feed 8 -10 times a day. Make sure there’s feed available along all the feed bunk; cows tend to concentrate and eat close to the area of the fans or water troughs.
Manage the face of the silo adequately to prevent secondary fermentations and heating. Defacer equipment minimizes air infiltration. Remove at least one foot in depth from all the exposed face. Use all silage removed as soon as possible to minimize secondary fermentations on the removed pile.
Use feed additives to control mold growth, reduce secondary fermentations, and excessive heating of the ration in the feed bunk; most of these products are organic-acid based (e.g. propionic acid).
Feed high quality, highly digestible forages. Target minimum effective NDF at 22% of the diet DM. This can be accomplished with cereal straws as needed (e.g. 1 to 1.5 pounds). Forage particle size has to be between 2.5 and 5 cm to minimize sorting.
Avoid excessive particle breakdown during mixing. Most TMR mixers have 3 to 6 minutes mixing time when they have been turning during loading. Check particle size with the Penn State particle separator. The superior sieve should retain approximately 2 – 8% of the diet (for the three sieve/one tray particle separator).
Feed additives such as yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), fungus (Aspergillus oryzae) and/or probiotics (Lactobacillus spp, Propionibacterium spp., Enterococcus spp.) can be included to improve rumen health.
Increase buffer concentrations in the diet (e.g. sodium bicarbonate) up to1% of the diet; supply sodium bicarbonate free choice (this should not substitute its inclusion in the diet).
Heat-stressed cows lose lots of minerals. Increase the concentration of sodium, potassium and magnesium to a minimum of 1.5, 0.45 and 0.35% of the diet DM, respectively. White salt (sodium chloride) is a source of sodium however it is important to maintain the concentration of chlorine at 0.35% of the diet DM, and not exceed 0.5% of white salt in the diet.
Use rumen-protected fat to increase the energy density of the diet, avoid the inclusion of unprotected fats such as vegetable oils or tallow.
Maintain high concentrations of starch and sugars in the diet (26 and 8%, respectively). Cereal grains that contain starch with slower degradation rates (e.g. corn, milo) are a better option than those with faster degradation rates (e.g. wheat, barley).
It is very important to have the water troughs in the shade and clean them frequently. Cows prefer to drink water with a temperature between 63 and 82 °F; if the water is not cool enough it further ads to the heat load.
Source: Alvaro Garcia and Fernando Díaz-Royón