The RFS requires 13.2 billion gallons of ethanol to be made from corn in 2012 and 13.9 billion gallons in 2013. The amounts will use about 4.7 billion and 4.9 billion bushels, respectively, of the nation’s corn crop. The USDA estimates that just 10.7 billion bushels of corn will be harvested this year.
EPA is responsible for developing and implementing regulations to ensure that transportation fuel sold in the United States contains a minimum volume of renewable fuel. The RFS program regulations were developed in collaboration with refiners, renewable fuel producers, and many other stakeholders.
The RFS program was created under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, and established the first renewable fuel volume mandate in the United States. As required under EPAct, the original RFS program (RFS1) required 7.5 billion gallons of renewable- fuel to be blended into gasoline by 2012.
According to EPA, under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, the RFS program was expanded in several key ways:
- EISA expanded the RFS program to include diesel, in addition to gasoline;
- EISA increased the volume of renewable fuel required to be blended into transportation fuel from 9 billion gallons in 2008 to 36 billion gallons by 2022;
- EISA established new categories of renewable fuel, and set separate volume requirements for each one.
- EISA required EPA to apply lifecycle greenhouse gas performance threshold standards to ensure that each category of renewable fuel emits fewer greenhouse gases than the petroleum fuel it replaces.
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