Quite a bit of manure/bedding pack does not get incorporated within 12 hours of application; this is due to spreading manure on frozen ground or delayed incorporation after surface applying manure anytime. This represents a substantial economic loss of manure-based nitrogen to the farmer. Also, this presents a potential environmental risk with nitrogen and phosphorus runoff. On the other hand, I understand time pressures on many livestock producers when they rationalize not to take the time to incorporate all their manure within 12 hours of application. This issue comes down to an act of balancing three important resources: time, economics, and environment.